Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households.
Water pipe - some facts
This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality.
In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards.
Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people.
Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself.
What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.
This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine.Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft.
Wooden pipes were used in London and elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries. The pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through.The multiple pipes were then sealed together with hot animal fat. They were often used in Montreal and Boston in the 1800s, and built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century. These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood.
Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure.
About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants.
Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals (see galvanic cell).Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe
Making minor plumbing workSmall plants hydraulic predominantly take orders for minor plumbing work.
They can be associated with connecting new sanitary facilities or carrying out small repairs.
All such work can be carried out also by plumbers self-employed. You just have to reckon with the fact that the services contract with an independent plumber probably will prolong the work carried out.
However, this should not affect their quality, and sometimes it turns out that the plumber running his own business applies doubly to perform the outsourced tasks themselves.
They may rely on both the exchange of a faulty seal and at the connection of the new tap.
Independent hydraulic works carried out in the homes
plumbing Ealing Home handymen are very fond carry out the various repair work. Therefore, it happens also that alone make minor repairs or improvements hydraulic.
The houses usually they exchange seals and pipes, which has already gathered a lot of dirt and hair and suds.
Similarly, in flats, where sometimes you also need to fix the toilet flush.
In addition, home handymen often deal with repairs washing machines standing in a bathroom or dishwashers standing in the kitchen. So they can save some money and demonstrate their efficiency in front of family.
But keep in mind that the performance of such work will be possible only if equipped house there are small seals and hydraulic tools..